Research Library

Child Abuse/Exploitation, Child Pornography, Child Protection, Child Sexual Abuse Material (Child Pornography), Cybercrime, Legislation

Child Sexual Abuse Material: Model Legislation & Global Review

2018

(ICMEC) This groundbreaking report, often referred to as ICMEC's Rule of Law project, analyzes child sexual abuse material (CSAM) legislation in 196 countries around the world, and offers a “menu” of concepts to be considered when drafting anti-CSAM legislation. First released in April 2006, the report is currently in its 9th edition.Read More

Child Abuse/Exploitation, Child Trafficking, Cybercrime, Legislation

Studies in Child Protection: Technology-Facilitated Child Sex Trafficking

2018

(ICMEC) - The Internet has global reach, which fuels the need for international legal cooperation to develop more stringent, overt laws to protect children from technology-facilitated child sex trafficking. While vast research exists regarding child sex trafficking broadly, this paper specifically focuses on: how and why technology is increasingly used to recruit, advertise, and send/receive payments for child sex trafficking; examining available international and regional legal instruments; reviewing a sampling of relevant national legislation; presenting model legislative language for consideration; and discussing the role of the technology and financial industries to deter traffickers from misusing their platforms to sexually exploit children.Read More

Child Abuse/Exploitation, Child Pornography, Child Protection, Child Sexual Abuse Material (Child Pornography), Cybercrime

Studies in Child Protection: Sexual Extortion and Nonconsensual Pornography

2018

(ICMEC) The purpose of this paper is to define and analyze sexual extortion and nonconsensual pornography as they impact children, as well as to better understand obstacles to prevention, policy intervention, and prosecution. This paper, framed with a global perspective, also presents effective, model legislative responses and highlights global efforts that are readily adaptable by individual countries to combat the growing number of cases of children who are exploited via sexual extortion and the nonconsensual sharing of intimate images.Read More

Child Abuse/Exploitation, Child Protection, International Schools, Parents

Choosing Safe Programs for Kids

2018

(ICMEC) Infographic for parents evaluating supervisory programs for children from a child protection perspective. This document provides tips for what parents can ask about, observe and challenge when evaluating child-serving organizations or programs.Read More

Missing Children/Child Abduction

Part II – A statistical analysis of applications made in 2015 under the Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction: Regional report

2018

(ICMEC, HCCH) This is the fourth research study to look into the operation of the Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. This study concerns all applications received by Central Authorities in 2015 and will use the findings of previous studies of 1999, 2003 and 2008 to provide an analysis of statistical trends over a 16-year period.Read More

Missing Children/Child Abduction

Part I – A statistical analysis of applications made in 2015 under the Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction: Global report

2018

(ICMEC, HCCH) This is the fourth research study to look into the operation of the Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. This study concerns all applications received by Central Authorities in 2015 and will use the findings of previous studies of 1999, 2003 and 2008 to provide an analysis of statistical trends over a 16-year period. (This is a provisional edition, pending the completion of the French version.)Read More

Child Abuse/Exploitation, Child Protection, Child Trafficking, International Schools

Keeping Children Safe Standards: Audit of Safeguarding Policies

2018

(Keeping Children Safe Coalition, 2014) The first Child Safeguarding Standards were launched over 12 years ago by a coalition of relief and development charities that later became known as Keeping Children Safe. Since then there has been a growing recognition that, as well as risks to children from staff and associates, inappropriately designed programmes and poor operational management can also create the possibility of risks to children. Keeping Children Safe represents a commitment by those working in this sector to ensure that their organisations “do no harm” and that they meet the responsibilities set out in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child to protect children from all forms of abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence. An online audit tool is available, and this pdf is available in English, French, Spanish, Arabic and Korean.Read More

Child Abuse/Exploitation

Responding to Children and Adolescents Who Have Been Sexually Abused: WHO Clinical Guidelines

2017

(World Health Organization) These clinical guidelines are aimed at helping frontline health workers, primarily from low resource settings, in providing evidence-based, quality, trauma-informed care to survivors. The guidelines emphasize the importance of promoting safety, offering choices and respecting the wishes and autonomy of children and adolescents. They cover recommendations for post-rape care and mental health; and approaches to minimizing distress in the process of taking medical history, conducting examination and documenting findings.Read More

Child Abuse/Exploitation, Cybercrime

Online Grooming of Children for Sexual Purposes: Model Legislation & Global Review

2017

(ICMEC) Prompted by the increasing number of cases of online grooming of children and relative lack of awareness of the growing issue, this original report analyzes legislation related to the online grooming of children for sexual purposes in 196 countries around the world. The report includes sections regarding definitions; offenses; and sanctions and sentencing, followed by an overview of related regional and international law, a discussion of implementation and good initiatives, and a global review of country-specific legislation that evaluates national legislation against 5 core criteria.Read More

Child Abuse/Exploitation, Child Pornography, Child Protection, Child Sexual Abuse Material (Child Pornography), Child Trafficking

Handbook for the translation and adaptation of the Terminology Guidelines for the protection of children from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse

2017

(ECPAT International) The Terminology Guidelines for the protection of children from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse ("Luxembourg Guidelines") are a tool guiding child protection professionals all over the world in their choice of words. Adopted by large consensus by the Interagency Working Group (IWG), composed of major international child protection agencies, they contribute to a more coherent, but also a more adequate and child-centered terminology in the work against sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. To respond to the needs expressed by child protection professionals, and make sure that the Luxembourg Guidelines can be a useful tool for professionals at all levels, ECPAT International developed this Handbook to facilitate the translation and adaptation of the Luxembourg Guidelines into other languages.

Read More

Child Abuse/Exploitation, Child Protection, International Schools, Mandatory Reporters, Professional Development, Schools, Teachers, Training

Your Child Protection Training Plan

2017

(ICMEC) Infographic outlines phases of comprehensive child protection planning for schools including abuse prevention education and the professional development needed by staff. Through ICMEC's Education Portal and Global Training Academy, educators are equipped to help prevent, identify and intervene in cases of child abuse, neglect and exploitation.Read More

Glossary on Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

2017

(United Nations) This glossary aims at compiling existing terminology and nomenclature related to sexual exploitation and abuse to provide conceptual clarity and a common understanding of key terms used by different United Nations entities in the discourse on this topic.Read More

Child Abuse/Exploitation, Child Protection, International Schools, Mandatory Reporters, Teachers, Volunteers

Understanding Role of Mandatory Reporters

2017

(ICMEC, combined and derived with permission from Education Portal resources from NCTSN, CfC, UKCCIS, AISA)  Know who is at risk, the facts about abuse, the signs and indicators of abuse and how to protect children in your care. Information for school staff, volunteers and families to prevent abuse and identify and respond to it should it occur.Read More

Child Abuse/Exploitation, Child Pornography, Cybercrime, cryptocurrency, FCACP, online exploitation

Cryptocurrency and the BlockChain: Technical Overview and Potential Impact on Commercial Child Sexual Exploitation

2017

(ICMEC) This paper examines several cryptocurrencies including Bitcoin, and the Blockchain architecture that supports them.  It provides a summary of the underground and illicit uses of the currencies, as well as ramifications for law enforcement and industry.  Read More

Child Abuse/Exploitation, Child Pornography, Child Sexual Abuse Material (Child Pornography), Cybercrime

Commonwealth Internet Governance Forum: A Joint Report on Online Child Protection Combatting Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet

2017

(Children’s Charities’ Coalition on Internet Safety, ICMEC) This report describes the impact of the Internet on the production and distribution of child pornography. It makes a number of suggestions about how states can join in the global fight against this vile misuse of cyber-space. In particular, the report presents a range of legal measures which Commonwealth Member States might consider adopting and it sets them in the context of wider initiatives designed to make the Internet a safer place for children and young people the world over. The primary audience for the toolkit is the Commonwealth but it is hoped that it might be of interest to a wider range of countries and professionals with an interest in child protection. This is the third edition of the toolkit. It updates the second edition, published in 2012.Read More

Child Trafficking

Case Digest: Evidential Issues in Trafficking in Persons Cases

2017

(UNODC) This Case Digest arose from a need the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) identified among practitioners who fight trafficking, to be given tools to address typical evidential problems which arise in trafficking cases. Therefore, the Case Digest aims first and foremost to assist criminal justice practitioners worldwide in addressing the evidential issues typical to trafficking cases, under the assumption that there are particular issues which recur and are central to the success or failure of cases. It aims to equip these practitioners with an arsenal of possible creative solutions that have been tried and tested elsewhere in actual cases before courts. It is hoped that by using these tools, practitioners will be inspired to think “outside the box” when encountering problems related to evidential issues in human trafficking cases.Read More

Child Pornography, Child Protection, Child Sexual Abuse Material (Child Pornography), Legislation

Framing Implementation: A Supplement to Child Pornography: Model Legislation & Global Review

2017

(ICMEC) Developed as a supplement to Child Pornography: Model Legislation & Global Review, this unique review looks at whether the 161 countries having anti-child pornography legislation in place as of the release of the 8th Edition of the Model Legislation report are taking steps to support their national legislation. ICMEC assessed implementation efforts using a menu of concepts – 7 benchmarks – that represent well-rounded national responses. The report contains a detailed explanation of the benchmarks along with country-specific information.Read More

Missing Children/Child Abduction

Photo Distribution Framework

2017

(ICMEC) The purpose of the Photo Distribution Framework is to explain the role a photo distribution strategy plays in engaging stakeholders, including media and the public, in the search for a missing child, and to clarify the difference between a photo distribution system and a rapid emergency child alert system. Distributing a missing child's photo along with key information about him or her can significantly increase the chances of a child's safe recovery.Read More

Missing Children/Child Abduction

Understanding and Managing Risk in the Context of Missing Persons

2017

(AMBER Alert Europe) This document is intended to guide an investigators thought process to enable them to reach a reasonable judgement about the risk of harm present in any missing person case.Read More

Child Protection, International Schools, Case Study, Policies and Procedures, Schools, United Kingdom

Overcoming Barriers to Child Protection in International Schools: Lessons Learned from an Abuse Incident Report

2017

(ICMEC Summary from LSCB Serious Case Review) Review of policies and actions that foster abuse resistant environments in international schools. Summary of lessons learned from serious case review commissioned on behalf of Hammersmith and Fulham, Kensington and Chelsea and Westminster LSCB, following the reported sexual abuse of at least 54 pupils at an independent international day school in London. The source report was prepared by two lead reviewers, both experienced in writing serious case review reports. The abuse, which occurred over a period of four years was perpetrated by a teacher known to have been a prolific sex offender in multiple international schools. Link to full report included in summary.Read More

Child Protection, Missing Children/Child Abduction

Identifying Risk Factors for a Potential Parental Child Abduction

2017

(Return US Home) The following questions make use of the early identification risk factors for a Parental Child Abduction and can help to identify where a credible risk of abduction may exist. This list of questions is not exhaustive, but will help the court to determine when abduction prevention language should be utilized to protect the child’s right to safe and continual access to both parties. If one or more risk factors are identified, appropriate abduction prevention language should be utilized (see, Judicial Options for the Prevention of Parental Child Abduction and Parenting Plan Travel Restraint Examples).Read More

Child Protection, Missing Children/Child Abduction

Judicial Options for the Prevention of Parental Child Abduction

2017

(Return US Home) Return US Home developed these tiered options for PCA prevention language to aid U.S. attorneys and judges in protecting a child under their purview from a potential abduction.  The document may be used alone, but is intended to be informed by a review of evidence and in consultation with the identifiable risk factors questionnaire and the Parenting Plan Travel Restraint Examples.Read More

Child Protection, Missing Children/Child Abduction

Parenting Plan Travel Restraint Language Examples

2017

(Return US Home) This document provides examples of parenting plan travel restraints that have been reviewed by the appropriate U.S. Federal authorities for optimal language that may be acceptable for a Prevent Abduction Program request.Read More

Child Abuse/Exploitation, Child Pornography, Child Protection, Child Sexual Abuse Material (Child Pornography), Child Trafficking, Cybercrime, Legislation, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

Online Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Guidelines for the Adoption of National Legislation in Latin America

2016

(ICMEC, UNICEF) The primary objective of these guidelines is to determine whether laws and policies exist in Latin America that address prevention, reporting mechanisms, tools, and specialized units for the investigation and prosecution of crimes related to online child sexual abuse and exploitation through the review of the regulatory frameworks in each country. The guidelines are intended to be used by relevant stakeholders including law enforcement, investigators, prosecutors, judges, and governmental and non-governmental organizations seeking to promote reform in legislation and in their fields of action, as well as to advocate for the development and reform of policies concerning prevention, victim assistance, and investigation of production, sale, distribution, and possession of child sexual abuse material.Read More

Child Abuse/Exploitation, Child Pornography, Child Protection, International Schools, Legislation

Child Online Protection in India

2016

(UNICEF) UNICEF commissioned this report to better understand online risks faced by children, identify gaps in legislation, ensure removal of harmful materials, support investigation and law enforcement and to identify services for victims of online exploitation and abuse. The aim was to identify priorities for government, NGOs, IT companies and other international agencies and determine appropriate interventions.Read More

Legislation, Missing Children/Child Abduction, Belarus, Canada, Finland, Kazakhstan, Russia, United States of America

Missing Children Assessment and Recommendations Best Practices Guide

2016

(ICMEC) This report was undertaken within the scope of a grant from the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Embassy in Moscow, with a focus on the issues of missing and exploited children. This report reviews current legislation, policies, and best practices related to missing children in six countries: Belarus, Canada, Finland, Kazakhstan, Russia, and the United States. While not representative of a single region, ICMEC reviewed legislation, policies, and practices in Russia and the United States (per the terms of the grant) along with a sampling of countries nearby to each, including post-Soviet countries and others, in an effort to review a variety of approaches and possible scenarios. The report contains country-specific information – including legislation, policies, and practices – along with a gap analysis and recommendations for developing and strengthening existing mechanisms in each of these countries.Read More

Child Abuse/Exploitation, Child Pornography, Child Protection, International Schools, Case Study, IT safeguarding curriculum, Peer-Peer Abuse, Schools, Sexting

Sexting in Schools: Responding to incidents and safeguarding young people

2016

(UKCCIS) Produced by the UK Counsel for Child Internet Safety, this cornerstone advice is for school heads and child protection designates or designated safeguarding leads on youth produced sexual imagery. Research found that 61% of secondary school head teachers reported this as a greater concern than smoking, drugs, obesity or offline bullying. This advice covers responding to disclosures, handling devices and imagery, assessing risk, reporting protocols, recording incidents, involving parents, supporting victims and victimizers, and preventative safeguarding and IT education. Resource lists, reporting forms, incident flow charts and staff training materials are included.Read More

Child Protection, Missing Children/Child Abduction

Rapid Emergency Child Alert System Framework

2016

(ICMEC, AMBER Alert Europe) This 14-point framework for implementing rapid emergency child alert systems is to be used in conjunction with other protocols and procedures designed to support the rapid recovery of missing children.Read More

Missing Children/Child Abduction

Internet Services: Helping Missing Children

2016

(ROCIT) This brochure aims to share information on how Internet resources can help lost children to find their way home, and how the adults who are searching for them can use digital tools to help recover the lost child quickly.Read More

Missing Children/Child Abduction

A Child Is Missing…What Should You Do?

2016

(ROCIT) Basic recommendations for what to do in case a child goes missing, and tips to help prevent children from going missing, are useful to any parent – even those who do not believe that their child could ever be affected.Read More

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